Synopsis And Codification





I. THE APPOINTMENT OF 'ABDU'L-BAHA AS THE SUCCESSOR OF BAHA'U'LLAH

AND INTERPRETER OF HIS TEACHINGS



A. The faithful are enjoined to turn their faces towards the

One Whom God hath purposed, Who hath branched from this

Ancient Root.

B. The faithful are bidden to refer whatsoever they do not

understand in the Baha'i writings to Him Who hath branched

from this mighty Stock.



II. ANTICIPATION OF THE INSTITUTION OF THE GUARDIANSHIP

III. THE INSTITUTION OF THE HOUSE OF JUSTICE



A. The House of Justice is formally ordained.

B. Its functions are defined.

C. Its revenues are fixed.



IV. LAWS, ORDINANCES AND EXHORTATIONS



A. Prayer





1. The sublime station occupied by the Obligatory

Prayers in the Baha'i Revelation.

2. The Qiblih:



a. Identified by the Bab with the One Whom God

will make manifest.

b. The appointment made by the Bab is confirmed by

Baha'u'llah.

c. Baha'u'llah ordains His resting-place as the

Qiblih after His passing.

d. Turning to the Qiblih is mandatory while

reciting the Obligatory Prayers.



3. The Obligatory Prayers are binding on men and women

on attaining the age of maturity, which is fixed at 15.

4. Exemption from offering the Obligatory Prayers is

granted to:



a. Those who are ill.

b. Those who are over 70.

c. Women in their courses provided they perform

their ablutions and repeat a specifically revealed

verse 95 times a day.



5. The Obligatory Prayers should be offered

individually.

6. The choice of one of the three Obligatory Prayers is

permissible.

7. By morning, noon and evening, mentioned in

connection with the Obligatory Prayers, is meant

respectively the intervals between sunrise and noon,

between noon and sunset, and from sunset till two hours

after sunset.

8. The recital of the first (long) Obligatory Prayer,

once in twenty-four hours is sufficient.

9. It is preferable to offer the third (short)

Obligatory Prayer while standing.

10. Ablutions:



a. Ablutions must precede the recital of the

Obligatory Prayers.

b. For every Obligatory Prayer fresh ablutions

must be performed.

c. Should two Obligatory Prayers be offered at

noon one ablution for both prayers is sufficient.

d. If water is unavailable or its use harmful to

the face or hands, the repetition, five times, of

a specifically revealed verse is prescribed.

e. Should the weather be too cold the use of warm

water is recommended.

f. If ablutions have been performed for other

purposes, their renewal prior to the recital of

the Obligatory Prayer is not required.

g. Ablutions are essential whether a bath has been

taken previously or not.



11. Determining the times fixed for Prayer:



a. Reliance on clocks is permissible in

determining the times for offering the Obligatory

Prayers.

b. In countries situated in the extreme north or

south, where the duration of days and nights

varies considerably, clocks and timepieces should

be relied upon, without reference to sunrise or

sunset.



12. In case of danger, whether when travelling or not,

for every Obligatory Prayer not offered a prostration

and the recital of a specific verse is enjoined, to be

followed by the repetition, eighteen times, of another

specific verse.

13. Congregational prayer is forbidden except the Prayer

for the Dead.

14. The recital, in its entirety, of the Prayer for the

Dead is prescribed except for those unable to read, who

are commanded to repeat the six specific passages in

that Prayer.

15. The Obligatory Prayer to be thrice repeated, three

times a day, at morn, noon and evening, has been

superseded by three Obligatory Prayers subsequently

revealed.

16. The Prayer of the Signs has been annulled, and a

specifically revealed verse substituted for it. The

recital of this verse is not however obligatory.

17. Hair, sable, bones and the like do not nullify one's

prayer.



B. Fasting



1. The sublime station occupied by fasting in the Baha'i

Revelation.

2. The period of fasting commences with the termination

of the Intercalary Days, and ends with the Naw-Ruz

Festival.

3. Abstinence from food and drink, from sunrise to

sunset, is obligatory.

4. Fasting is binding on men and women on attaining the

age of maturity, which is fixed at 15.

5. Exemption from fasting is granted to:



a. Travellers



i. Provided the journey exceeds 9 hours.

ii. Those travelling on foot, provided the

journey exceeds 2 hours.

iii. Those who break their journey for less

than 19 days.

iv. Those who break their journey during the

Fast at a place where they are to stay 19

days are exempt from fasting only for the

first three days from their arrival.

v. Those who reach home during the Fast must

commence fasting from the day of their

arrival.



b. Those who are ill.

c. Those who are over 70.

d. Women who are with child.

e. Women who are nursing.

f. Women in their courses, provided they perform

their ablutions and repeat a specifically revealed

verse 95 times a day.

g. Those who are engaged in heavy labour, who are

advised to show respect for the law by using

discretion and restraint when availing themselves

of the exemption.



6. Vowing to fast (in a month other than the one

prescribed for fasting) is permissible. Vows which

profit mankind are however preferable in the sight of

God.



C. Laws of Personal Status



1. Marriage:



a. Marriage is highly recommended but not

obligatory.

b. Plurality of wives is forbidden.

c. Marriage is conditioned upon both parties

having attained the age of maturity which is fixed

at 15.

d. Marriage is conditioned on the consent of both

parties and their parents, whether the woman be a

maiden or not.

e. It is incumbent upon both parties to recite a

specifically revealed verse indicating their being

content with the will of God.

f. Marriage with one's stepmother is forbidden.

g. All matters related to marriage with one's

kindred are to be referred to the House of

Justice.

h. Marriage with unbelievers is permitted.

i. Betrothal:



i. The period of engagement must not exceed

95 days.

ii. It is unlawful to become engaged to a

girl before she reaches the age of maturity.



j. The Dowry:



i. Marriage is conditioned on payment of a

dowry.

ii. The dowry is fixed at 19 mithqals of

pure gold for city-dwellers, and 19

mithqals of silver for village-dwellers,

depending on the permanent residence of the

husband, and not of the wife.

iii. It is forbidden to pay more than 95

mithqals.

iv. It is preferable that a man content

himself with the payment of 19 mithqals of

silver.

v. If the full payment of dowry is not

possible the issue of a promissory note is

permissible.



k. Should either party, following the recital of

the specifically revealed verse and the payment of

the dowry, take a dislike to the other before the

marriage is consummated, the period of waiting is

not necessary prior to a divorce. The taking back

of the dowry, however, is not permitted.

l. The husband must fix for his wife the time of

his return when intending to travel. If, for a

legitimate reason, he is prevented from returning

at the appointed time, he must inform her and

strive to return to her. If he fails to fulfil

either condition, she must wait 9 months, after

which she may remarry, though it is preferable for

her to wait longer. If news of his death or murder

reaches her, and the news is confirmed by general

report or by 2 reliable witnesses, she may remarry

after the lapse of 9 months.

m. If the husband departs without informing his

wife of the date of his return, and is aware of

the law prescribed in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, the wife

may remarry after waiting a full year. If the

husband is unaware of this law, the wife must wait

until news of her husband reaches her.

n. Should the husband, after the payment of the

dowry, discover that the wife is not a virgin, the

refund of the dowry and of the expenses incurred

may be demanded.

o. If the marriage has been conditioned on

virginity the refund of the dowry and of the

expenses incurred may be demanded and the marriage

invalidated. To conceal the matter, however, is

highly meritorious in the sight of God.



2. Divorce:



a. Divorce is strongly condemned.

b. If antipathy or resentment develop on the part

of either the husband or the wife, divorce is

permissible, only after the lapse of one full

year. The beginning and end of the year of waiting

must be testified by two or more witnesses. The

act of divorce should be registered by the

judicial officer representing the House of

Justice. Intercourse during this period of waiting

is forbidden, and whoever breaks this law must

repent and pay the House of Justice 19 mithqals

of gold.

c. A further period of waiting after divorce has

taken place is not required.

d. The wife who is to be divorced as a result of

her unfaithfulness forfeits the payment of the

expenses during the waiting period.

e. Remarrying the wife whom one has divorced is

permissible, provided she has not married another

person. If she has, she must be divorced before

her former husband can remarry her.

f. If at any time during the waiting period

affection should recur, the marriage tie is valid.

If this reconciliation is followed by estrangement

and divorce is again desired, a new year of

waiting will have to be commenced.

g. Should differences arise between husband and

wife while travelling, he is required to send her

home, or entrust her to a dependable person, who

will escort her there, paying her journey and her

full year's expenses.

h. Should a wife insist on divorcing her husband

rather than migrate to another country, the year

of waiting is to be counted from the time they

separate, either while he is preparing to leave,

or upon his departure.

i. The Islamic law regarding remarriage with the

wife whom one has previously divorced is

abrogated.



3. Inheritance:(22)



a. Inheritance falls into the following

categories:



1. children 1,080 out of 2,520 shares

2. husband or wife 390 out of 2,520 shares

3. father 330 out of 2,520 shares

4. mother 270 out of 2,520 shares

5. brother 210 out of 2,520 shares

6. sister 150 out of 2,520 shares

7. teacher 90 out of 2,520 shares



b. The share of the children, as allotted by the

Bab, is doubled by Baha'u'llah, and an equal

portion correspondingly reduced from each of the

remaining beneficiaries.

c.



i. In cases where there is no issue the

share of the children reverts to the House

of Justice to be expended on orphans and

widows and for whatever will profit mankind.

ii. If the son of the deceased be dead and

leave issue, these will inherit the share of

their father. If the daughter of the

deceased be dead and leave issue, her share

will have to be divided into the seven

categories specified in the Most Holy Book.



d. Should one leave offspring but either part or

all of the other categories of inheritors be

nonexistent, two thirds of their shares reverts to

the offspring and one third to the House of

Justice.

e. Should none of the specified beneficiaries

exist, two thirds of the inheritance reverts to

the nephews and nieces of the deceased. If these

do not exist, the same share reverts to the aunts

and uncles; lacking these, to their sons and

daughters. In any case the remaining third reverts

to the House of Justice.

f. Should one leave none of the aforementioned

heirs, the entire inheritance reverts to the House

of Justice.

g. The residence and the personal clothing of the

deceased father pass to the male not to the female

offspring. If there be several residences the

principal and most important one passes to the

male offspring. The remaining residences will

together with the other possessions of the

deceased have to be divided among the heirs. If

there be no male offspring two thirds of the

principal residence and the personal clothing of

the deceased father will revert to the female

issue and one third to the House of Justice. In

the case of the deceased mother all her used

clothing is to be equally divided amongst her

daughters. Her unworn clothing, jewels and

property must be divided among her heirs, as well

as her used clothing if she leaves no daughter.

h. Should the children of the deceased be minors

their share should either be entrusted to a

reliable person or to a company for purposes of

investment, until they attain the age of maturity.

A share of the interest accrued should be assigned

to the trustee.

i. The inheritance should not be divided until

after the payment of the Huququ'llah (The Right of

God), of any debts contracted by the deceased and

of any expenses incurred for a befitting funeral

and burial.

j. If the brother of the deceased is from the same

father he will inherit his full allotted share. If

he is from another father he will inherit only two

thirds of his share, the remaining one third

reverting to the House of Justice. The same law is

applicable to the sister of the deceased.

k. In case there are full brothers or full

sisters, brothers and sisters from the mother's

side do not inherit.

l. A non-Baha'i teacher does not inherit. If there

should be more than one teacher, the share

allotted to the teacher is to be equally divided

among them.

m. Non-Baha'i heirs do not inherit.

n. Aside from the wife's used clothing and gifts

of jewellery or otherwise which have been proven

to have been given her by her husband, whatever

the husband has purchased for his wife are to be

considered as the husband's possessions to be

divided among his heirs.

o. Any person is at liberty to will his

possessions as he sees fit provided he makes

provisions for the payment of Huququ'llah and the

discharge of his debts.



D. Miscellaneous Laws, Ordinances and Exhortations



1. Miscellaneous Laws and Ordinances:



a. Pilgrimage

b. Huququ'llah

c. Endowments

d. The Mashriqu'l-Adhkar

e. Duration of the Baha'i Dispensation

f. Baha'i Festivals

g. The Nineteen Day Feast

h. The Baha'i Year

i. The Intercalary Days

j. The age of maturity

k. Burial of the dead

l. Engaging in a trade or profession is made

obligatory and is exalted to the rank of

worship

m. Obedience to government

n. Education of children

o. The writing of a testament

p. Tithes (Zakat)

q. Repetition of the Greatest Name 95 times

a day

r. The hunting of animals

s. Treatment of female servants

t. The finding of lost property

u. Disposition of treasure trove

v. Disposal of objects held in trust

w. Manslaughter

x. Definition of just witnesses

y. Prohibitions:



i. Interpretation of the Holy Writ

ii. Slave trading

iii. Asceticism

iv. Monasticism

v. Mendicancy

vi. Priesthood

vii. Use of pulpits

viii. The kissing of hands

ix. Confession of sins

x. Plurality of wives

xi. Intoxicating drinks

xii. Opium

xiii. Gambling

xiv. Arson

xv. Adultery

xvi. Murder

xvii. Theft

xviii. Homosexuality

xix. Congregational prayer, except for

the dead

xx. Cruelty to animals

xxi. Idleness and sloth

xxii. Backbiting

xxiii. Calumny

xxiv. Carrying arms unless essential

xxv. Use of public pools in Persian

baths

xxvi. Entering a house without the

owner's permission

xxvii. Striking or wounding a person

xxviii. Contention and conflict

xxix. Muttering sacred verses in the

street

xxx. Plunging one's hand in food

xxxi. Shaving one's head

xxxii. Growth of men's hair beyond the

lobe of the ear



2. Abrogation of specific laws and

ordinances of previous Dispensations, which

prescribed:



a. Destruction of books

b. Prohibition of the wearing of silk

c. Prohibition of the use of gold and

silver utensils

d. Limitation of travel

e. Offering priceless gifts to the

Founder of the Faith

f. Prohibition on questioning the

Founder of the Faith

g. Prohibition against remarrying

one's divorced wife

h. Penalizing whoever causes sadness

to his neighbour

i. Prohibition of music

j. Limitations upon one's apparel and

beard

k. Uncleanliness of divers objects and

peoples

l. Uncleanliness of semen

m. Uncleanliness of certain objects

for purposes of prostration



3. Miscellaneous Exhortations:



a. To associate with the followers of

all religions with fellowship

b. To honour one's parents

c. Not to wish for others what one

does not wish for one's self

d. To teach and propagate the Faith

after the ascension of its Founder

e. To assist those who arise to

promote the Faith

f. Not to depart from the Writings or

to be misled by those who do

g. To refer to the Holy Writ when

differences arise

h. To immerse one's self in the study

of the Teachings

i. Not to follow one's idle fancies

and vain imaginations

j. To recite the holy verses at morn

and at eventide

k. To recite the holy verses

melodiously

l. To teach one's children to chant

the holy verses in the

Mashriqu'l-Adhkar

m. To study such arts and sciences as

benefit mankind

n. To take counsel together

o. Not to be indulgent in carrying out

the statutes of God

p. To repent to God of one's sins

q. To distinguish one's self through

good deeds



i. To be truthful

ii. To be trustworthy

iii. To be faithful

iv. To be righteous and fear God

v. To be just and fair

vi. To be tactful and wise

vii. To be courteous

viii. To be hospitable

ix. To be persevering

x. To be detached

xi. To be absolutely submissive

to the Will of God

xii. Not to stir up mischief

xiii. Not to be hypocritical

xiv. Not to be proud

xv. Not to be fanatical

xvi. Not to prefer one's self to

one's neighbour

xvii. Not to contend with one's

neighbour

xviii. Not to indulge one's

passions

xix. Not to lament in adversity

xx. Not to contend with those in

authority

xxi. Not to lose one's temper

xxii. Not to anger one's

neighbour



r. To be closely united

s. To consult competent physicians

when ill

t. To respond to invitations

u. To show kindness to the kindred of

the Founder of the Faith

v. To study languages for the

furtherance of the Faith

w. To further the development of

cities and countries for the

glorification of the Faith

x. To restore and preserve the sites

associated with the Founders of the

Faith

y. To be the essence of cleanliness:



i. To wash one's feet

ii. To perfume one's self

iii. To bathe in clean water

iv. To cut one's nails

v. To wash soiled things in

clean water

vi. To be stainless in one's

dress

vii. To renew the furnishings of

one's house



V. SPECIFIC ADMONITIONS, REPROOFS AND

WARNINGS Addressed to:



1. The entire human race

2. Crowned heads of the world

3. The concourse of

ecclesiastics

4. The Rulers of America and

Presidents of the Republics

therein

5. William I, King of Prussia

6. Francis Joseph, Emperor of

Austria

7. The people of the Bayan

8. Members of parliaments

throughout the world



VI. MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS



1. The transcendent character of

the Baha'i Revelation

2. The exalted station of the

Author of the Faith

3. The supreme importance of the

Kitab-i-Aqdas, The Most Holy

Book

4. The doctrine of the Most

Great Infallibility

5. The twin duties of

recognition of the Manifestation

and observance of His Laws, and

their inseparability

6. The end of all learning is

the recognition of Him Who is

the Object of all knowledge

7. The blessedness of those who

have recognized the fundamental

verity He shall not be asked of

His doings

8. The revolutionizing effect of

the Most Great Order

9. The selection of a single

language and the adoption of a

common script for all on earth

to use: one of two signs of the

maturity of the human race

10. Prophecies of the Bab

regarding He Whom God will make

manifest

11. Prediction relating to

opposition to the Faith

12. Eulogy of the king who will

profess the Faith and arise to

serve it

13. The instability of human

affairs

14. The meaning of true liberty

15. The merit of all deeds is

dependent upon God's acceptance

16. The importance of love for

God as the motive of obedience

to His Laws

17. The importance of utilizing

material means

18. Eulogy of the learned among

the people of Baha

19. Assurance of forgiveness to

Mirza Yahya should he repent

20. Apostrophe addressed to

Tihran

21. Apostrophe addressed to

Constantinople and its people

22. Apostrophe addressed to the

banks of the Rhine

23. Condemnation of those who

lay false claim to esoteric

knowledge

24. Condemnation of those who

allow pride in their learning to

debar them from God

25. Prophecies relating to

Khurasan

26. Prophecies relating to

Kirman

27. Allusion to Shaykh

Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i

28. Allusion to the Sifter of

Wheat

29. Condemnation of Haji

Muhammad-Karim Khan

30. Condemnation of Shaykh

Muhammad-Hasan

31. Allusion to Napoleon III

32. Allusion to Siyyid

Muhammad-i-Isfahani

33. Assurance of aid to all

those who arise to serve the

Faith





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